Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an emerging mosquito-borne RNA virus in the family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus. In humans, VEEV is usually an acute, often mild, systemic illness. The clinical signs may include fever, chills, generalized malaise, severe headache, photophobia and myalgia. Coughing, sore throat, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea may also be seen. Approximately 4% of children develop mild to severe encephalitis; neurologic disease occurs in less than 1% of symptomatic adults.