The genus Theileria comprises tick-transmitted sporozoan protozoa that are the causative agents of a variety of disease syndromes in domestic and wild ruminants, and are collectively responsible for economic losses amounting to hundreds of millions of dollars annually in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. There are six identified Theileria spp. that infects cattle. Theileria parva is primarily a parasite of African buffalo and the cause of Bovine Theileriosis and East Coast Fever. It may be transmitted by a wide range of tick hosts although Rhipicephalus appeniculatus is the most importnat in the field.