Streptococcus oralis is a member of the normal human oral microbiota, capable of opportunistic pathogenicity. Is a Gram positive bacterium that grows characteristically in chains. Strains of S. oralis produce neuraminidase. S. oralis cells are able to take up exogenous DNA and incorporate exogenous sequence information into their genomes by homologous recombination. These bacteria can employ a predatory fratricidal mechanism for active acquisition of homologous DNA.