Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is a respiratory viral pathogen that causes a spectrum of illnesses that range from asymptomatic infection to severe bronchiolitis. HMPV is classified as the first human member of the Metapneumovirus genus in the Pneumovirinae subfamily within the Paramyxoviridae family. It is an enveloped negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus. HMPV is associated with severe infection in patients with pulmonary disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The virus seems to be distributed worldwide and it is likely that transmission occurs by contact with contaminated secretions, via droplet, aerosol, or fomite vectors.