Hop latent viroid (HLVd) is one of three carlaviruses, is a single-stranded, circular infectious RNA of 256 nucleotides. Initially it was believed that this viroid did not produce any symptoms of disease, thus the inclusion of the term latent in the viroid name. However it is now known that HLVd infection occurs worldwide in the cones of various hop (Humulus lupulus) which are important bitter flavoring agents used in the production of beer and is deleterious to production in certain cultivars. Quantitative changes in some secondary metabolites in the secretory glands forming lupulin are induced by HLVd infection, indicating that the viroid is not truly latent. Hop Latent Viroid infection depends on the metabolism of the host plant, and it’s replication and pathogenesis are mediated by its structural features and its ability to interact with cellular factors. Detection and control of HLVd is of paramount importance for the food industry.