Venezuelan hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is a zoonotic human illness. The disease is most prevalent in several rural areas of central Venezuela and is caused by the Guanarito virus (GTOV) which belongs to the Arenaviridae family which are enveloped, single-stranded, bisegmented RNA viruses with antisense genomes. The short-tailed cane mouse (Zygodontomys brevicauda) is the main host for GTOV which is spread mostly by inhalation of aerosolized droplets of saliva, respiratory secretions, urine, or blood from infected rodents. It causes fever and malaise followed by hemorrhagic manifestations and convulsions. Some presentations of the virus are also characterized by vascular damage, bleeding diathesis, fever, and multiple organ involvement.