The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the pathogen that causes foot-and-mouth disease. It is a ssRNA positive-strand picornavirus, the prototypical member of the genus Aphthovirus. The disease, which causes vesicles (blisters) in the mouth and feet of bovids, suids, ovids, caprids and other cloven-hoofed animals is highly infectious and a major plague of animal farming. This virus occurs in seven distinct serotypes namely: O, A, C, Asia 1, SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3, each having multiple strains. The three SAT serotypes have usually been restricted to sub-Saharan Africa. The SAT-1 serotype have been reported into the Middle East.