The encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) is a small non-enveloped single-strand RNA virus, the causative agent of not only miocarditis and encephalitis, but also neurological diseases, reproductive disorders and diabetes in many mammalian species. It is caused by members of the genus Cardiovirus in the family Picornaviridae. EMCV causes high mortality in young pigs and reproductive failures in breeding females. Piglets suffer from myocarditis and encephalitis and sudden death due to myocardial failure is common. The disease affects the nervous, reproductive, respiratory and circulatory system of pigs.