Camelpox is a wide-spread infectious viral disease of Old World camelids. New World camelids are also susceptible. It has an important economic impact through loss of production and sometimes death. Camelpox is caused by Orthopoxvirus cameli virus, which belongs to the genus Orthopoxvirus (family Poxviridae). The presumptive diagnosis of camelpox infection is based on clinical signs. However, infections of camels with contagious ecthyma, papilloma virus and reaction to insect bites are considered differential diagnoses in cases of camelpox. Several diagnostic methods are available and, where possible, more than one should be used to make a confirmatory diagnosis of disease.