Bluetongue disease virus is a vector-borne hemorrhagic disease of ruminant species in many tropical, subtropical and some temperate regions, including much of the Americas, Africa, southern Asia and northern Australia. It is caused by Bluetongue virus (BTV) which has a double stranded RNA genome (Orbivirusgenus in the family Reoviridae). BTV is transmitted to ruminants via certain species of biting midges (Culicoides spp.). The major symptoms of infection are high fever, excessive salivation, swelling of the face and tongue, and cyanosis of the tongue. Nasal symptoms are common, including nasal discharge and stertorous respiration. Phylogenetic analyses show that it represents the least conserved region of the BTV genome, separating primarily into 26 distinct serotypes which are characterized by its geographic regions. BTV serotype 16 was reported for the first time in Oman.