Akabane virus is a teratogenic Orthobunyavirus widely distributed across the world but not in New World countries. It affects mainly cattle. In adult animals Akabane virus infection is usually subclinical, but encephalomyelitis has been associated with Akabane virus infection in adult cattle. In endemic areas, antibody in the female animal prevents fetal infection, but the virus is capable of establishing a long-term infection of the placenta in susceptible cattle and sheep. Akabane virus is responsible for embryonic and fetal losses and multiple congenital deformities in domestic ruminants.